Bill Hunt III
- Effect of Visibility on Maintenance Investment and Consequent Performance of Urban Stormwater Control Measures , JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE WATER IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT (2022)
- A Comparison of Methods to Address Anaerobic Conditions in Rainwater Harvesting Systems , WATER (2021)
- Hydrologic Modeling of Distributed Stormwater Control Measure Retrofit and Examination of Impact of Subcatchment Discretization in PCSWMM , JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE WATER IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT (2021)
- Monitoring the Water Quality Benefits of a Triangular Swale Treating a Highway Runoff , JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE WATER IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT (2021)
- Next generation swale design for stormwater runoff treatment: A comprehensive approach , JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT (2021)
- Survey of the operational status of twenty-six urban stormwater biofilter facilities in Sweden , JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT (2021)
- Designing Dry Swales for Stormwater Quality Improvement Using the Aberdeen Equation , JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE WATER IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT (2020)
- Field Assessment of the Hydrologic Mitigation Performance of Three Aging Bioretention Cells , JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE WATER IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT (2020)
- Hydrologic and water quality performance of two aging and unmaintained dry detention basins receiving highway stormwater runoff , JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT (2020)
- Using Irrigation to Increase Stormwater Mitigation Potential of Rainwater Harvesting Systems , JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE WATER IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT (2020)
Lifetime Fitness (LTF) is developing an existing driving range in Northeast Raleigh into a Personal Fitness Center. To complete a project conducted prior to construction, LTF has pledged to monitor their center and property which has been designed to mimic pre-development hydrology and pollutant loads. NCSU-BAE proposes to collect hydrologic and water quality data from the completed development immediately before flow exits the property (at a monitoring station constructed during phase I of this project). Data collected during this second phase will be compared to that of the earlier (pre-development) monitoring period. NCSU faculty and staff will participate in up to 4 public meetings to discuss the project as part of public service/outreach, if needed.
The state of North Carolina has been struck by several extreme rainfall events over the past few years, which have caused failures in stormwater infrastructure (including but not limited to Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) regulated under the Departmentâ€™s NPDES stormwater permits (NCS000250)). While SCMs are designed to treat runoff, their principal focus has been treating moderately sized rain storms. How these SCMs fared during larger events, and the restorative maintenance efforts associated with SCM damage is a significant concern for NCDOT. The Department has a substantial investment in stormwater management assets with over 1900 SCMs having been constructed to treat runoff from roadways, bridges, rest areas, and maintenance yards across the state. Moreover downstream stormwater infrastructure is protected by SCMs (e.g., swales and other conveyance channels). Fortunately, NCDOT has conducted quantitative monitoring of several of these SCMs installed as part of its NPDES permit-required Retrofit Program. NCDOT would benefit understanding at what storm size do typically-designed SCMs no longer provided hydrologic mitigation. At what point do SCMs likely fail with significant structural degradation (both to the SCM and downstream) that would lead to costly reconstructive repair? Moreover, are there simple retrofits to existing SCMs (or design features for to-be-built SCMs) that can enhance or extend hydrologic mitigation and reduce the chances of failure?
WilsonÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s Hominy Creek Swamp is a Nutrient Sensitive Water (NSW) with benthos impairment. NC State University and the City of Wilson are partnering to implement a large-scale stormwater wetland that would treat runoff from most of downtown Wilson. Runoff from approximately 80-acre watershed will be treated by this off-line, flow-through wetland. As this urban SCM is large (3 acres), the funding request is separated into three proposals: (1) herein which requests funds for construction and a small amount of personnel time for construction supervision, (2) an EEG administered by the NCDOJ is providing funds for the design of the wetland, and (3) funds from the NCL&WF have recently been requested to cover all monitoring expenses. This wetland is expected to be highly effective at reducing N&P inputs to Hominy Swamp Creek, with SNAP outputs suggesting that nearly 17,000 lbs of N and more than 3000 lbs of P will be removed over a 30-year period. Because of the expected success of the project and the fact that many communities are looking for means to reduce runoff (to protect downstream underserved communities) while improving water quality, we plan to offer a flow-through wetland design workshop series in NC (including in Wilson) towards the end of this project. This workshop will disseminate information that will hopefully encourage other communities to follow a similar path. Lastly, due to the size of the ecosystem that is being created near downtown Wilson, the City will be partnering with the local science museum (Imagination Station) to develop educational displays.
A subsurface gravel wetland will be constructed in Raleigh, NC by the City of Raleigh. North Carolina State University (NCSU) will monitor the gravel wetland for one year, analyze the data, and synthesize the results in a final report to the City of Raleigh. If the project is successful, these water quality and hydrology data will be used to help the North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality establish nutrient concentrations for subsurface gravel wetlands.
Five-to-six urban pervious landcovers will be selected in the Raleigh-Durham area and 2-3 urban pervious landcovers will be selected in the Wilmington area. The intent of locating research sites in both places is to test a gradient of soil types (sandy in Wilmington and clayey in Durham/Raleigh). Three principal pervious covers will be tested, but flexibility exists for these to be adjusted per input from NCDEQ personnel. As of now, we will test forests with minimal management, shrub areas with minimal management, and turfgrass. Exact sites will be selected during the first 3 months of the project. Each small catchment will be surveyed to determine its size. When necessary, NC State SEG will construct diversions to channel runoff to a monitoring station. No monitoring will be installed until reviewed and approved by NC DEQ. Every site will be monitored for approximately one year and data collection will occur during the following 15 months (not every monitoring site will have the same ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…â€œstartÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â date). Hydrologic and water quality data will be collected using automated samples, v-notch weirs coupled with pressure transducers, and rain gauges. Flow-proportional samples will enable the calculation of Event Mean Concentrations (EMCÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s) that are necessary for SNAP. The graduate student will keep a quarterly-revised tally of results for each monitoring station and be able to report this to NCDEQ upon DEQÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s request. Data will be analyzed using statistical techniques and tabulated in a final report. Findings from this report are intended to be incorporated into the SNAP tool. A workshop will be held towards the end of the project with a focus on SNAP, during which time the results of this research will be shared to the design and regulatory community.
Jacks Smith Creek is a highly urbanized stream in Washington, North Carolina that has documented impairments due to increased runoff volumes, magnitude and frequency of channel-forming flows, and pollutant loadings. This project proposes to assist the team assembled by Sound Rivers, Inc (grantor) to draft a 9-Element Watershed Restoration Plan to help address these impairments and improve water quality. NCSU will provide consultation on potential project sites, nutrient loading estimates, and conduct a literature review.
The modern availability of novel data analytics and cost-effective high-performance computing creates unique opportunities to tap into the wellspring of potential offered by big data for creating decision-making tools that inform sustainable agroecosystem management. When coupled with climate, land use, and policy-related data streams through analytics, long-term monitoring data can be applied to develop data-driven decision-support tools designed for land and water resource managers, but foundational research is needed to develop such data-rich decision-support platforms. As a case study, this research will develop a data-to-decision pipeline for nearshore water quality management in support of shellfish agroecosystem protection. Shellfish growing areas are regularly screened for coliform bacteria to inform on-the-fly decision-making by regulators who are evaluating the sanitation of cultured shellfish, which has led to the accrual of a vast record of spatiotemporal bacterial observations. These national-scale data remain poorly explored and underutilized due to challenges associated with analyzing big, multi-scale data, but could be mined to develop critically-needed decision-support platforms.
Wet detention ponds, or wet ponds, are one of the most common stormwater control measures installed in North Carolina and humid regions throughout the world. While wet ponds are effective at attenuating peak flow, previous research has shown inconsistent pollutant removal efficiency. As ponds are a popular SCM in North Carolina, the improvement of their pollutant removal efficiencies is essential in North CarolinaÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s nutrient sensitive watersheds. To address these treatment shortcomings, research has recently focused on retrofits to existing wet ponds to improve nutrient removal. One popular retrofit is the floating treatment wetland (FTW). Previous research has begun to address questions surrounding the use of FTWs as a wet pond retrofit, including attempts to quantify nutrient removal and surface coverage requirements for targeted pollutant removal. This project will deploy FTWs at two nutrient sensitive locations in Wilmington and Raleigh, NC to test the effectiveness of placing FTWs at the outlet of a system through pre- and post-installation water quality monitoring and wetland plant biomass analysis in order to close the knowledge gaps with FTWs to the extent necessary to prepare nutrient removal credit guidance for the NC DEQ SCM Credit Document and lead to the implementation of FTWs throughout NC.
Monitoring results from traditionally designed multi-cell stormwater wetlands and flow-through wastewater treatment wetlands suggest designing stormwater wetlands as flow-through rather than capture and release systems would provide cost savings and increase the implementation of stormwater wetlands for treatment (Hathaway and Hunt 2010; Merriman et al. 2016; Drake et al. 2018; Wang et al. 2006). The purpose of this project is to determine the water quality and hydrologic benefits of flow-through wetlands. More specifically, this project will address NC DEQ concerns regarding appropriate hydraulic retention times, vegetation selection, and pollutant removal credits. Addressing these concerns will determine if stormwater wetlands can be more cost effective than equivalent SCMs (e.g. wet ponds). To the project stakeholders' knowledge single cell stormwater wetlands designed for a hydraulic retention time rather than a design volume have yet to be constructed or monitored in North Carolina.
WilsonÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s Hominy Creek/ Hominy Swamp is a Nutrient Sensitive Water (NSW) with benthos impairment. NC State University and the City of Wilson are partnering to implement five storm water control measure (SCM) retrofits within the City Limits. The retrofits are varied and demonstrate a variety of improvements that can be made across the watershed going forward. They are: (1) the engineering of a headwaters basin to convert it into a functioning stormwater wetland, (2) the improvement of an eroding headwaters channel by either bank stabilizing or linear wetland channel creation, (3) retrofitting an existing wet pond with floating wetland islands, and (4) and (5) converting 2 alleyways into green alleys. In all, more than 130 watershed acres will be treated. In addition to the construction of these 5 retrofits, NC State and the City of Wilson will partner on multiple education programs. The first is a local wetland plant installation and maintenance workshop that will target local landscapers and City of Wilson maintenance staff. The second is a workshop that will be targeted at stormwater design and regulatory professionals highlighting specific retrofits constructed as part of this 319 grant. While the workshop series will be constructed state-wide, one of the offerings will be in the City of Wilson and will highlight these projects as part of a field tour. The City is able to provide a profound amount of match through two separate efforts. The first is the construction of a major ($1.9M) underground detention stormwater retrofit SCM in downtown and the second is applying $80,000 of a $150,000 EEG grant received for SCM design. Thus, the majority of the money requested in this grant is going towards installation (rather than being shared with a substantial amount of design costs). The City will also perform at least some of the construction for three of the SCMs to be constructed: the headwaters basin and both green alleys. A pair of watershed monitoring stations will be maintained and collected data analyzed by NC State. One monitoring station will focus on downtown Wilson runoff (and its consequent treatment); the second will focus on collective headwaters improvement. The two downtown green alley retrofits will be specifically monitored for hydrologic performance. The wet pond retrofit with floating wetland islands will be monitored for water quality improvement. Benthic macroinvertebrate testing will also be conducted at both watershed monitoring stations.